C5T3P3 The Return of Artificial Intelligence《人工智能的回归》
The field（领域）was launched, and the term（n.术语） ‘artificial intelligence’ coined, at a conference in 1956, by a group of researchers that included Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon and Alan Newell, all of whom went on to become leading figures（领军人物） in the field.
That said, different groups of researchers attacked different problems, from speech recognition（语音识别）to chess playing, in different ways; AI unified the field in name only.
Most researchers agree that AI peaked(达到高峰)around 1985. A public reared on science-fiction movies and excited by the growing power of computers had high expectations. For years, AI researchers had implied that a breakthrough was just around the corner.
It proved to be a false dawn. Thinking computers and household robots failed to materialise, and a backlash（强烈抵制） ensued. ‘There was undue(过度的) optimism in the early 1980s,’ says David Leake, a researcher at Indiana University.
After years in the wilderness, the term ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) seems poised to make a comeback. AI was big in the 1980s but vanished(消失) in the 1990s. It re-entered public consciousness with the release of AI, a movie about a robot boy.
C16T4P3 Attitudes towards
Artificial intelligence (AI) can already predict the future. Police forces are using it to map when and where crime is likely to occur. Doctors can use it to predict when a patient is most likely to have a heart attack or stroke.
AI, on the other hand, is still fairly new and unfamiliar to most people. Even if it can be technically explained (and that’s not always the case), Al’s decision-making process is usually too difficult for most people to comprehend. And interacting with something we don’t understand can cause anxiety and give us a sense that we’re losing control.
Optimists became more extreme in their enthusiasm for AI and sceptics(怀疑论者) became even more guarded.
Simply having previous experience with AI can significantly improve people’s opinions about the technology, as was found in the study mentioned above. Another solution may be to reveal more about the algorithms(算法) which AI uses and the purposes they serve. Research suggests that allowing people some control over AI decision-making could also improve trust and enable AI to learn from human experience.
2017年12月，人工智能入选“2017年度中国媒体十大流行语”。2021年9月25日，为促进人工智能健康发展，《新一代人工智能伦理规范》发布。笔者在看到这份《规范》时，想到了C15T1P2 driverless cars《无人驾驶》这篇真题里提及的无人驾驶汽车面临的一个挑战：无人驾驶车出事故怎么认定责任。随着人工智能的发展，伦理规范将为人工智能的进一步加速发展奠定了重要基础。